Friday, January 7, 2022

I hate and abhor falsehood and its name is Palestine

Psalm 119: 163 "I hate and abhor falsehood;" 

One of THE most cherished slanders and perversions of the truth is the use of the term "Palestine" and how the "Arabs of the Mandated Areas" who have usurped the term "Palestinians" to describe themselves. 
"When in 1921 I came to Palestine – until the end of World War I it was a barren, sparsely inhabited Turkish province – we, the Jewish pioneers, were the avowed Palestinians. So we were named in the world. Arab nationalists, on the other hand, stridently rejected the designation. Arab spokesmen continued to insist that the land we had cherished for centuries was, like Lebanon, merely a fragment of Syria." From an op-ed by Golda Meir printed in The New York Times January 14, 1976
As to the real truth - This morning I wanted to wish the "laddies and lassies" of the Community Standards Gestapo headquarters in Dublin Ireland a very pleasant work day as you tirelessly strive to delete and ban Jews and pro-Israel Zionist posters from your platform!! 

Ah yes Ireland… that quaint country of such glorious DEEP hatred of the "Christ Killers" (the Catholic Church's theological position that holds that Jews as a people group will forever hold a collective responsibility for killing Jesus)  and those ever so deeply passionate anti-Zionists!!!

LOL, I love it that a JINO -aka Mark, the "what Me, Jewish?" evidently anti-Zionist -same T-shirt, EVERYDAY Zuckerberg, is evidently missing quite a few marbles in the being a real Jew compartment of the brain. I understand he purports to assume he is a "Jew". 

To me it is so regretful that during the past two decades how atypical that a secular "liberal conscientious Jew" would allow such virulent anti-Semitism "hatred of Jews" -meaning him and his family to flourish on a "social" platform that HE created, reveals the immense void of the removal of "religion" that is evident in modern secular liberal Judaism.  

And one just has to love the idea how the term "social media" is used to designate what is in essence, a platform for the widespread ANTI-social propaganda and hatred media. 

As a historian I cannot help be see the similarities of history repeating itself with these "Liberal " Jews today, who like the Jews in Germany during the rise of Hitler and the "Third Reich" were labeled "Mischlings." 
We have seen with organizations like the "Jewish Voice for Palestine" and "Code Pink, how these modern day "Mischlings"- who are now referred to as "JINOs" -"Jews In Name Only", are flagrantly anti-Zionist Jews who would do everything to show they are "faithful" to the "motherland" of  anti-Israel "Liberalism".
"Most Mischlings did not identify with the Jewish community. Many had grown up as baptized Christians and even were themselves very anti-Semitic. They preferred to think of themselves as normal, as part of the whole of German fabric, as part of the "Volk". Their language, their culture, the societal relationships and schooling all had been German. Even for those who grew up knowing that they had had a parent who was Jewish, they preferred not be left behind and identified as Jewish. They yearned, worked and did everything within their capabilities to prove themselves as good, loyal members of the Germanic peoples. They needed to show the German world that their German blood was the dominant force that flowed in their veins."Hitler's Jewish Soldiers By Jerry Klinger "The Ideal German Soldier"
For those who aspire to be "anti-Zionistic" JINOs you should heed the wise words of Rabbi Jonathan Sacks z"l regarding the words of Moses and the meaning of why we Jews must remember and teach our children the story of Passover:
"Forget where you came from and why, and you will eventually lose your identity, your continuity and your raison d’etre. You will come to think of yourself as the mere member of a nation among nations, one ethnicity among many. Forget the story of freedom and you will eventually lose freedom itself."

Now getting back to my rant regarding the "Foreign Student" controllers of the "algorithm of entrapment" .... "What's on my mind?

 Ah but do you truly wish to know the truth, me thinks not? To inquire "What's on my mind?" to elicit a response is just SO Freudian!! 

To paraphrase Shakespeare; “Something is rotten in the Community Standards headquarters in Dublin Ireland”! and it ain't Irish! 
Could it be that there is a preference -advertised for the service center- that you are looking to "employ students from foreign" countries and that there is an overabundance of "Arabic" names and of course Pakistanis employed? 

And as ALL Hasbarnics (those who speak the truth and facts for Israel) know. Ireland IS THE HOME of the worst anti-Israel pro-Tragedy Tourist of Nachbaland™ "click bait" talkback trolls! 

Over the years I have seen them in their lavish support for the ISM -International Solidarity Movement in Gaza and BDS "Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions" movement and their stated and explicit hatred for Israel, which is so massive they out do themselves as the most venomous ant-Semites I have ever read comments by or seen tweets by! 

Oh yes, regretfully we of the massively superior Zionist Hasbara intellect KNOW WHO you "Liars for Palestine™" really are!!

For we see them on EVERY Facebook /Meta "News" media page excreting their venomous hatred and totally mendacious lies of revisionist history and gross falestinian dezinformatsiya!! 

We know just how you "gang up" on those of the Zionist Hasbara to complain to have us banned so that we cannot counter your lies and fabrications. We see on your Facebook pages how some of them even listed their place of employment with the Dublin Headquarters of the Customer Service Center! 

How many of the Irish "Click bait" Talkback artists of venomously anti-Semitism have used this lie- so much I made this Meme to debunk them!!

These Liars for Palestine™"  have even attempted to usurp the term used to describe hatred of Jews to further their lie of an ethnicity of a non existent people!!

Just as in the total fabrication and mind boggling bamboozlement of the world with your invention of a "country or nation"(nationality) that supposedly once existed. 
A people whom usurped the name given by a Roman Emperor, who in his ignominious defeat by Jews, had meant to erase the memory of OUR INDIGENOUS homeland of Judaea by naming it after a people the "Philistines".

These Philistines who were called the "Pleshtim" or invaders from the Greek islands as described by the Greek historian Herodotus -whom you fabricate lies about as "proof", when you cannot even take the time to verify the actual Greek translation of the term "palaistes". 
You quote "The Histories" of Herodotus's Book VII as "proof"? 
"Thence they went on to invade Egypt; and when they were in Syria which is called Palestine, Psammetichos king of Egypt met them..." 

The problem is the term "Palestine" is NOT translated correctly. 

Herodotus the Greek who wrote in Greek around 450 BCE wrote in Book VII of his "The Histories", that the "sea People" were in essence Minoan's from the Mediterranean Sea who invaded the coastal lands from Egypt to Lebanon were descendants of Greek peoples -ergo his use of the Greek term "palaistes" from the term for "wrestlers" to identify them. 

These "Sea People" fled the eruption between 1642 and 1540 BCE of the volcano of Santorini -though dormant, is still an active volcano.
In its explosive eruption it created a group of small islands around its crater. The island of Santatori was called Thera in ancient times is an island in the southern Aegean Sea 
 "[The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestina], according to their own account, dwelt anciently upon the Erythraean Sea, but crossing thence, fixed themselves on the seacoast of Syria, where they still inhabit. This part of Syria, and all the region extending from hence to Egypt, is known by the name of "Palaestina"." 
You can review a scene from the north wall of Medinet Habu that illustrated the Egyptian campaign against the Sea Peoples in what has come to be known as the Battle of the Delta
It is true that the accompanying hieroglyphs do not name Egypt's enemies, rather they describe them simply as being from "northern countries". 
Fifteenth-century BC paintings in Thebes, Egypt depict Minoan-appearing individuals bearing gifts. Inscriptions describing them as coming from keftiu ("islands in the middle of the sea") may refer to gift-bringing merchants or officials from Crete. 
Early scholars noted the similarities between the hairstyles and accessories worn by the combatants and other reliefs in which such groups from the Grecian Isles are named. 
It never fails to astonish me how the "Liars for Palestine™" insist on posting this "Big Lie" of historical revisionism regarding the "actuality of a Palestinian People" and as "proof" of the existence of a "Sovereign country by the name Palestine" when there is ABSOLUTELY NO documented or archaeological proof that this claim is true!! 

These "Liars for Palestine™" insist on posting "ancient" maps where the term itself was created and spread on maps purposely by early cartographers to designate the "Holy Land". 
Very few remind readers that the early church was in competition with Judaism as seen by the repeated attempts to eliminate the Jews- (does the Spanish Inquisition ring a bell?)

And as in ALL conflicts there are those "victors" who purposely set out to erase the memory of a vanquished foe....

And pray tell when you "Liars for Palestine™" quote the "ancient" maps that labeled the area as "Palestina" as in the Roman province of Syria-Palestina ,do you not note that many times they either designate the Old Testament division of Eretz-Yisrael by tribal areas or as Iudea and Israel (Shomron)

That "ancient maps" by NON Christian cartographers do NOT mention Palestine but the lands of Syria-Palestina

In conclusion, of my long rant, allow me to state that by far the most vicious and hate filled pathological liars on the internet that I have encountered are those people that admire, the so-called nation that never existed “Falestine”. 

What liars fear the most is being revealed as liars and that is why they detest Israel so violently since we dare to tell them and their "audience" the truth. 

This whole "Big Lie" of historical revisionism by the "Palestinians" and their venomous defaming of Israel, that is allowed to freely spread openly by highly obvious and clear complicity by the social media while censoring the truth by pro-Jewish and Zionistic individuals. IS THE reason, why we Israeli's face such ignorance and hatred. 

It is fitting that the whole issue of anti-Israel social media hatred is in this infamous quote by the chief propagandist for the Nazi Party Joseph Goebbels: 

“If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it. The lie can be maintained only for such time as the State can shield the people from the political, economic and/or military consequences of the lie. It thus becomes vitally important for the State to use all of its powers to repress dissent, for the truth is the mortal enemy of the lie, and thus by extension, the truth is the greatest enemy of the State.” 

Do not say you were not informed because I have told you the whole truth. 

It is up to you to inform your friends so that the light of truth will spread. 
Psalm 116:118 "Thou hast made light of all them that err from Thy statutes; for their deceit is vain." 
Psalm 116:160 "The beginning of Thy word is truth; and all Thy righteous ordinance endureth forever." 

Wednesday, September 15, 2021

The fallacy of the BLM accusation of Jewish "White Privilege"

When I was growing up in the pre-Civil Right era in the "Heart of Dixie" Birmingham Alabama. My grandfather Ernest (Elisha ben Natanel HaLevi) had owned several small stores in the millinery business (primarily Hats and gloves) throughout the "Greater Birmingham Area" in the pre-Jacqueline Kennedy period when it was "fashionable for women to wear hats and gloves. He also had "Hat" departments in the large Department Stores owned by my "Mishpucah" relatives in the area.

Many times, they came to the Department Store owned by my relatives -which had "Hat" departments and would purchase clothing for their children. When I was just 14 my grandfather took me to work with him. I would run items to the stores and collect the daily sales receipts from the stores in downtown Birmingham Alabama. When I went out on my runs, I would stop at my other maternal Grandfather Ben Levy's "Levy Brother's Drugstore" where my grandfather was the pharmacist.

In the past it was quite common, as it regretfully is today, that many "Afro American" women worked to support their families, as single mothers. Many worked as maids in the homes of middle and upper class wealthy white families from before dawn to late at night for meager pay. These women were dependent on local city-wide public transportation "bus service" on the "segregated buses to reach their "jobs" in the suburbs.

Many of these women had been studious in school and had achieved education. Many found that the doors to better paying jobs were few in number and the job market was severely limited due to outright racism and jealousy by lower class whites who were not willing to allow a Black man and especially a Black woman to be superior to them.

 Since these Afro-American women were very "devout Christians" they were the main customers of my grandfather's and relatives' businesses. In the days before "credit cards" these women would purchase Hats and gloves months in advance on a "Lay-away" plan for Easter. Many of these hard-working women would go to the Department Stores owned by my relatives and purchase clothing items also in "easy payment plans" that were highly flexible -many times based on the very close and personal relations that developed between Jewish families and Afro-American families.

Therefore, when Easter approached and my Grandfather's Jewish accountant Sarah Lischkoff saw that some of these women were in arrears, my grandfather would ask Sarah to have the women who managed the hat departments or stores to notify them that they could have their items that they had placed in "Lay-a-way" to wear for Easter.

My grandfather never "demanded" payment of them since he knew many of these women and their families. Sometimes he would leave an envelope in their box with money knowing their hardships they faced. I remember my "Uncle Leon Aland" and his brothers would do the same.


In the drugstore of my other maternal grandfather Ben Levy there was a "coloured only section" in the rear of the store. I remember many times when my grandfather or his younger brother Morris z"l would see that a customer was hesitant to ask for a needed medication that they would give it to them. Sometimes so as to not go against the pride of the person who could not pay, he would place the ordained medicine in place of the cheaper item that the customer took so as to not offend their pride.

I can also remember how he gave out treats and candies to the children. Occasionally when he saw that a child was hungry, he would go to the food counter of the store and ask the worker to prepare something for the child.

 As Jews in the deep South, we were considerate and highly aware of the conditions of the Blacks and sympathized deeply with their plight because many of the same limitations and manners of discrimination that over the years had once been carried out openly became "discreet".

All of our grandparents were aware of the story of Leo Frank and the underlying ancient hatred of the Jews that led to his murder and especially that hatred motivated by the Jewish connection to the Red Scare of 1919–1921 that had fueled xenophobic fears of foreign radicals migrating to undermine American values and provoke an uprising like the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.

Many "White Americans" primarily those from the "superior European lands" suffered from generations of open anti-Jewishness and anti-Semitism. I personally found that the highest level of Jew hatred came from the Catholics of Irish descent and their hatred was applied against us Jews and the Afro-Americans.

I have always found that hatred was taught. That when those of "superior European lands" and the Catholics of Irish descent came into direct personal contact with us Jews and learned that we were not "monsters" and "children of Satan" their views and relationship changed.

There are many detractors among the Afro-Americans of America today -especially those brainwashed members of Black Lives Matter, that claim that Jews were NOT as badly treated as Afro-Americans because we are "White" and appear to be the priviledged "Caucasians".

These instigators of hatred say that we Jews have "White Privilege" because after generations of living in Europe many Jews are indeed fair skinned, which is obvious to the eye and therefore we could "assimilate" and acquire "Privilege". These hate-filled "Historical Revisionists" and rabid anti-Semites have embraced the writings of Arthur Koestler from his 1967 book "The Thirteenth Tribe: The Khazarian Empire and its Heritage" as "proof" of the anti-Semitic conspiracy theories around the Khazars’ reported conversion to Judaism. This spurred anti-Semitic beliefs that they were building a secret empire which sought widespread control through financial gains.

They point out that the Khazars moved into and settled in Eastern Europe, and antisemites push the conspiracy theory that Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe—are not “real Jews” - a phrase claiming that today’s Jews are not the chosen people referenced in the Bible and are working to infiltrate other nations on their quest for world domination.

The Khazarian trope is being widely spread by the minions of the "falestinian Nachba Tragedy Tourists" and their brainwashed and bamboozled sycophants to undermine the Jewish connection to Israel, and therefore Israel’s right to exist, because it falsely says Jews originated from the northern Caucasus region and were part of the Turkic empire—and not the Land of Israel.

Some antisemites on both the right and left now openly claim that Ashkenazi Jews are “fake Jews,” and that Israel is a “fake nation.” This accusation has been used historically and continues to be used by those who believe in the "Khazarian conspiracy theory" dispelling the Jewish connection to Israel

Few of these same brainwashed detractors today are oblivious to their "bamboozlement" that this part of "Aryan racism" was a major part of the Nazi regime. And they are uneducated in the historical truth of how the Nazi doctors and scientists made portfolios of the "Hated Jews" to "Prove" that Jews were not a religious denomination, but a dangerous "non-European race.”

The Nazi's believed the Jews were not a religious denomination, but a dangerous "non-European race" and their racial antisemitism was based on false scientific theories.

This aspect of racism was always an integral part of Nazism and it is has become an integral part of the "Historic Revisionist" put forward by the Arabs of the Mandated Areas aka the "Palestinians" in their efforts to usurp the connection of the Jewish people to our indigenous homeland of Eretz Yisrael.

This "Historical Revisionism" now has Black supremacists claiming Black people—not Jews—are the true chosen people of God and that Black supremacy has roots in “Black Chosenness”— the belief that African Americans are the descendants of the twelve Hebrew tribes of Israel who settled across Africa after the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel and were eventually sold into slavery during the Atlantic slave trade.

 Black supremacy argues that Black people are superior to all other races and that “white” Jews are imposters. Elements of Black supremacy can be found within the Black Hebrew Israelite movement, as well as within Nation of Islam under the leadership of Louis Farrakhan and his supporters. In the age of social media, some Black supremacists have co-opted the language of white supremacists when discussing Jews: calling them “termites” and “bugs” with subhuman features

The "White Priviledged" accusation regarding Jews received notoriety in the aftermath of the riots in Fergusson Missouri when the "Palestinians" and their communist left wing anti-Zionist backers "hijacked" the momentum to finally undermined the once very close relationship between Jews and Afro-Americans.

As a Jew in the Deep South, I grew up learning that we Jews -from our experiences in Eastern Europe lived always with the realization that anti-Jewish sentiments lurked in the "darkness".

That the little help we gave in kindness to the poor -yes even the poor whites, was overlooked when it came to the "Mark of Cain" that still exists and lurks openly and increasingly on the Internet through various World Wide Web formats even today in the teachings that; "Jews murdered the Christ".

Now as an Israeli, I have witnessed over the past 15 years, since the incept of social media, a major and concerted effort to not only to usurp the connection of the Jewish people to our indigenous homeland but to brainwash the world into massive hatred towards the Jewish state and to hasten our demise. The effort to negate the Jewish State and to create a negation to our connection to our homeland in Zion especially among our Jewish brethren is both alarming and disconcerting to say the least.

What the "Arabs of the Mandated Areas", the so called "Palestinians", failed to do by murder, terrorism and open warfare is regretfully succeeding through the brainwashing of the world.


Thursday, July 1, 2021

Patriotism and the need for sanity in America

I had posted a previous blog entry the other day regarding the Facebook query, What is on my mind? And like yesterday I was concerned about an item lost among many young Americans. So the post was entitled; "Patriotism and SANITY. More importantly EDUCATION!!!"  I had asked those on Facebook who read it to share my "Thoughts" 

What has been bothering me for the past few days, and has caused me to lie in bed unable to sleep, is the image of Gwen Berry the "Black American". 

When receiving the high honor of a metal for athletic achievement in the name of "OUR" country Gwen Berry choose to show the resentment and hatred that she has been taught by those who adhere to a hatred of an old norm in American society by standing with a clenched upraised fist her head bowed and turned away in disrespect.

As I looked at the image, I was reminded of a ship captain from Massachusetts named William Driver who coined the nickname “Old Glory”.

When writing about his thoughts to recollect the reason he referred to the American flag “Old Glory,” Driver proclaimed; 

“It has ever been my staunch companion and protection. Savages and heathens, lowly and oppressed, hailed and welcomed it at the far end of the wide world. Then, why should it not be called Old Glory?”  

I think ALL Americans can readily agree with our fellow "Black American" citizens that the issue of racism and "white supremacy" and the values spread by those who are so blinded by hatred need to be dealt with severely. When teaching about "racial toleration" and "diversity" one most also keep in mind the words of unity and freedom.

And YES I can most readily agree that the wording of the third stanza of the poem "Defense of Fort M'Henry", which later formed the basis for the lyrics of the “The Star-Spangled Banner” -those three stanza NOT used, is offensive to Black Americans like Gwen Berry. So YES, these offensive stanzas SHOULD BE stricken from the entire congressional resolution from March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508, codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301)!

For those who do not know the wording of the third stanza, it DOES speak in a very derogatory manner about Black slaves who fled to join the British army and navy to gain their freedom and to fight against the American forces. As Gwen Berry stated:

"If you know your history, you know the full song of the national anthem, the third paragraph speaks to slaves in America, our blood being slain...all over the floor. It's disrespectful and it does not speak for Black Americans. It's obvious. There's no question."

But Gwen dear if you knew your history as YOU and ALL your "Black American activists" claim, it does NOT "allude to the catching and beating slaves!" Key was referring to ex slaves who joined the British forces to fight against America.

Yes, Gwen, Francis Scott Key WAS a slaveholder! Which regrettably was an abhorrent "norm" in the pre-Civil War American society, but thousands of Americans died fighting to emancipate Black Americans.

In his famous line from the poem “Dulce et Decorum Est” -It is sweet and glorious to die for one's country  written by a British soldier and poet Wilfred Owen during the First World War in 1919, and published posthumously in 1920. Owen's line speaks of the old Latin phrase of honor in dying for one's country, as so many of our country men have. Just as in the famous last words attributed to Nathan Hale his , “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country.”

And these haters must realise that our Flag and our nation symbolise the lines that Emma Lazarus immortalized in her poem "The New Colossus":

"Keep ancient lands your storied pomp!" cries she

with silent lips "Give me your tired, your poor,

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,

I lift my lamp beside the golden door."

All night long I could see the images of these hate filled ignorant "Americans", both Black and white NOT standing with tears in their eyes, filled with the emotion that the AMERICAN FLAG symbolizes. 

For me, in my mind's eye, I could only see the rows and rows of American patriots; young and old men and women of ALL colors and races who had either been born in the "Free land of America" or in foreign lands who had laid down their lives for the "Freedom of Speech", these arrogant, egotistical, sniveling brat narcissists so readily abuse by kneeling or standing in protest not realizing that they have allowed those who teach hatred to erroneously educate them.

To them I say clearly and loudly: Honor the Flag, honor the words of the anthem and not the poem!! 

When you stand with a clenched fist and turn aside your head aside.

And you cannot accept the fact that the words are important and symbolize greatness, then YOU are blinded by hate! 

When you close your ears to the words that speak of honor to our nation

And you cannot accept the fact that the words of the National Anthem express the exhilaration and ecstasy of the sight of our Nations flag still standing, in light of the adversity of a severe bombardment, then YOU are blinded by hate! 

When you cannot see the blood of those Black Americans who fought despite the adversary of the "Old" norms to keep OUR nation free

And you cannot accept the fact that free men of ALL colors have built this nation and have thrown off the "Old World" mentalities that we once the norm, then YOU are blinded by hate! 

When you are so blinded by ignorance and hatred of it's symbolism

And you cannot accept the fact that the beauty expressed in its color and make up of stars that represent its unity and its resilience to the tyranny of our oppressors is "racist", then YOU are blinded by hate! 

If you cannot accept the fact that men and women of ALL colors, races and religions have died with its image in their hearts, then YOU are blinded by hate! 

If you cannot honor OUR "Old Glory" and our Anthem then OUR home is NOT yours!    

O! say can you see, by the dawn's early light,

    What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming,

Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,

    O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming?

        And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,

        Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there —

            O! say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave

            O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave?

I say God Bless America! The land that symbolizes freedom!

Wednesday, June 30, 2021

Gwen Berry and the Star Spangled Banner

The U.S. Olympic hammer thrower, Gwen Berry, who while being "honored", turned away from the flag as the national anthem blared and covered her face with a shirt that read "Activist Athlete."

In her "defense" Berry later clarified that as a "Black American" she has an issue with a line in "The Star-Spangled Banner," which she said "alludes to the catching and beating slaves."

Berry said:

"If you know your history, you know the full song of the national anthem, the third paragraph speaks to slaves in America, our blood being slain...all over the floor. It's disrespectful and it does not speak for Black Americans. It's obvious. There's no question."

Gwen, you should have listened more closely in your history class because the National anthem DOES NOT "allude to the catching and beating slaves."  

The poem; "Defense of Fort M'Henry" which later formed the basis for the lyrics of the “The Star-Spangled Banner”, speaks about Black slaves who fled to join the British army and navy to gain their freedom and to fight against the American forces. It does NOT "allude to the catching and beating slaves."

What DOES SCREAM to be noted is that the offensive third stanza of the poem is NOT PART of today's National Anthem!!

 The Background:

There is no single cause for the War of 1812 but several related causes

In Europe, Britain, the naval power, and France, the land power, were at war with each other. Each side was trying to cripple the other’s economy with blockades and confiscation of trade goods. And the United States was trying to remain neutral. Britain issued Orders-in-Council, treating as an enemy any vessel that tried to enter a French port without first stopping at a British port to pay a fee and get a license. The British felt this was necessary in order to defeat Napoleon, but the Americans felt Britain was insisting they should have no trade of their own and that she should control all their foreign commerce; they felt their independence was at stake.

The United States retaliated with the Embargo Act, which stopped all United States merchant vessels from sailing from United States ports and forbade commerce with any foreign nation.

The Embargo adversely affected all regions of the United States, resulting in a depression that all but paralyzed the economy of the United States. Smuggling along the Canadian border flourished.


Impressment was the most volatile issue between the United States and Britain. This was because it dealt with sovereignty. Impressment involved the right to search commercial ships for deserters. Poor food, hard work, and harsh discipline caused British sailors to desert by the thousands. Most of them ended up in America. Britain never claimed the right to search vessels of the United States Navy. She did claim the right to search private vessels as she felt this involved no invasion of another nation's sovereignty. Americans considered this to be an insult to their sovereignty.


The division of land after the Revolution did not leave everyone satisfied. The loss of the Ohio River valley, housing vital fur trade routes, displeased Canadian and British merchants. It also served home to a large Indigenous population, a large part of which had supported the British during the American Revolution and now argued for an autonomous Indigenous state to be created south and west of Lake Erie.

The Americans felt that British support of the First Nations was a threat to their expansion and their policy of forcing the conversion of First Nations peoples to farmers, giving up their hunting lands for American use.

The primary cause for the call to invade Canada was the perceived support the British in Canada were giving the Natives of the Northwest. The Americans did not miss that Canada was Britain's last foothold on the continent either. As relations with Britain worsened, the call for expansion both north and south increased in volume and frequency. The exhaustion of the farm lands in the Old Northwest caused land-hungry farmers to call for the conquest of Canada with its good lands.


All these issues resulted in the surfacing of a small yet persuasive political faction known as the War Hawks, led by Henry Clay of Kentucky, who was elected to Congress in 1810. The War Hawks demanded war with Britain.

The Story 

Following the Battle of Baltimore on Sept. 14, 1814, against invading British forces — Francis Scott Key had been “dispatched by President James Madison on a mission … to negotiate for the release of Dr. William Beanes, a prominent surgeon”.

While onboard the British flagship Francis Scott Key witnessed the 25-hour bombardment of Fort McHenry (And the rocket’s red glare! /The bombs bursting in air!) by British ships of the Royal Navy in the Chesapeake Bay. Inspired by the sight of the Stars and Stripes still flying the next morning at Fort McHenry — Gave proof through the night/That our flag was still there/Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave.

Key penned the poem; "Defense of Fort M'Henry" which later formed the basis for the lyrics of the “The Star-Spangled Banner”. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first stanza forms the National Anthem today. Here are all four stanzas of “The Star-Spangled Banner”

First Stanza:  the National Anthem today.

O! say can you see, by the dawn's early light,

 What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming,

Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,

O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming?

And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,

Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there —

O! say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave

O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave?

 Second Stanza:

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,

Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,

What is that which the breeze o'er the towering steep,

As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?

Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,

In full glory reflected now shines on the stream —

'Tis the star-spangled banner, O! long may it wave

O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave.

Third Stanza:

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore

That the havock of war and the battle's confusion

A home and a country should leave us no more?

Their blood has wash'd out their foul foot-steps' pollution,

No refuge could save the hireling and slave,

From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave;

And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave

O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave.

 Fourth Stanza:

O! thus be it ever when freemen shall stand

Between their lov'd home, and the war's desolation,

Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land.

Praise the power that hath made and preserv'd us a nation!

Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,

And this be our motto — "In God is our trust!"

And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave

O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave.

“The Star-Spangled Banner” was recognized for official use by the U.S. Navy in 1889, and by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, and was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508, codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301), which was signed by President Herbert Hoover.

 About the author

Francis Scott Key was born August 1, 1779 and died January 11, 1843. From the time of the creation of the southern colonies with their large agriculturally based lifestyle, slavery had become a "necessary evil". By the beginning of the nineteenth century most of the large "plantations" were wholly dependent on slave labor.

Key inherited not only his family's Plantation "Terra Rubra," in Frederick County, Maryland, upon the death of his father he also became a slave holder.

According to historical records, Key purchased his first slave in 1800 or 1801 and owned six slaves in 1820. He freed seven slaves in the 1830s, one of whom continued to work for him for wages as his farm's foreman, supervising several slaves.

Key also represented several slaves seeking their freedom, as well as several slave-owners seeking return of their runaway slaves. Key was one of the executors of John Randolph of Roanoke's will, which freed his 400 slaves, and Key fought to enforce the will for the next decade and to provide the freed slaves with land to support themselves.

Key is known to have publicly criticized slavery's cruelties, and a newspaper editorial stated that "he often volunteered to defend the downtrodden sons and daughters of Africa." The editor said that Key "convinced me that slavery was wrong—radically wrong".

There is a quote being falsely attributed to Key taken out of context from ambiguities in the 1937 biography of Key by Edward S. Delaplainem that is being used to defame Key as a "racist".

The truth is Key, who was a leader, fundraiser and was a founding member for the American Colonization Society organization, was in actuality describing the attitudes of Southern religious institutions in reply to an 1838 "questionnaire" that he wrote to Reverend Benjamin Tappan of Maine.

In his reply to Reverend Tappan, Key cities the attitude of Southern religious institutions that asserted that; "formerly enslaved blacks could not remain in the U.S. as paid laborers".

Key's personal thoughts, as a leader and fundraiser for the American Colonization Society organization, was not to send the men and women he freed to Africa upon their emancipation.

It was the attitude of the Southern religious institutions and most members of Southern Society who in many cases were wholly dependent on slave labor that free blacks are;

"a distinct and inferior race of people, which all experience proves to be the greatest evil that afflicts a community".

Prejudicial historians have argued that upper-class American society, of which Key was a part, could never "envision a multiracial society". These "historians" are writing from a viewpoint now blinded by the passage of time and of norms in society at that particular period, no matter how antiquated and despised they are now.

It is a HISTORICAL FACT that in the northern part of the newly founded United States -North of the "Mason Dixon Line", the majority of the populace was of "White Europeans". There had previously NOT been a number of "racially" different citizens since in the Northern US Colonies there was little need for field hands like on the large farming plantations of the South. Because of this there were very few if any "Black" slaves in most of the New England colonies.

By the beginnings of the 19th Century, the majority of free blacks born in the Northern colonies which became the United States.

The American Colonization Society of which Francis Scott Key was a leading member was not supported by most abolitionists or free blacks of the time since the members were predominantly slave owners. It was through the organization's work that eventually led to the creation of Liberia in 1847.

Abolitionists alleged that as District Attorney, Francis Scott Key suppressed abolitionists and did not support an immediate end to slavery. Yet these detractors failed to note that Key was also a leader of the American Colonization Society which endeavored to send freed slaves to lives of freedom in Africa. Key freed some of his slaves in the 1830s, paying one ex-slave as his farm foreman. He publicly criticized slavery and gave free legal representation to some slaves seeking freedom, but he also represented owners of runaway slaves.

By 1810, more than 15 percent of the U.S. population was enslaved. Some 6,000 African Americans fled to the British during the War of 1812, on the promise of freedom and were recruited into the Royal Navy or into the Colonial Marines, which was a mostly black unit. The Colonial Marines was part of the British forces that overran Washington, D.C., in 1814 and set fire to the White House.

From March of 1813 to September 1814, the British Navy occupied the Chesapeake Bay and its islands. On April 2, 1814, Admiral Alexander Cochrane proclaimed that any escaped slave who made it to British lines or a British vessel and was willing to enlist in the Royal Marines would be freed. Several thousand Maryland slaves risked capture from slave patrols to escape to the British. Seven hundred slaves enlisted in the British Marines and served with bravery at the Battles of Bladensburg and North Point.

The first three lines refer to the slaves who took advantage of the war to escape, but "their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution." There was "no refuge" for the "hireling and slave from the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave." 

For many when Key wrote these words, he was expressing his despisal for those former slaves, who had joined the British as part of their Colonial Marines, to be slaughtered and killed as they attempted to take Baltimore. Though Key never told anyone what he actually meant in this line it more than probably is correct.

What is shameful is that those 700 Black American men who escaped bondage and offered themselves to serve the British did so not only their own freedom, but the freedom of all who were enslaved in the "land of the free". These men were true heroes and should be honored. The pity is they had to fight for the British, not the Americans.

In light of today's values it is regretful that this highly controversial and problematic third stanza was included as part of the original full U.S. anthem. This fact tarnishes both the song and our nation. Yet, it SCREAMS to be noted that the controversial third stanza is omitted and NOT used in today's National Anthem.

In conclusion:

It should be noted that on Christmas Eve of 1814, the peace treaty was signed and sealed. The eleven articles stated that the U.S. and Britain would return to the status quo ante bellum, or the exact same state of affairs as before the war. There was no mention of impressment or the Orders-in-Council; the issues which had spurred the U.S. into declaring war. On paper, it was as if the war had never been fought.

What does stand out is that during the talks the United States requested the return of “such slaves as may be in your control, belonging to any inhabitant or citizen of the United States.” The British refused and by doing so tarnished both the song and our nation.





Friday, June 25, 2021

Operation Guardian of the Walls and "Civilian Deaths"

After 11 days of hostilities, Operation Guardian of the Walls ended with a ceasefire at 0200 on May 21, 2021. The terrorist organizations in the Gaza Strip continued firing rockets until shortly before the deadline, and since the ceasefire there has been a tense quiet in the Gaza Strip. Hamas spokesman Taher al-Nunu and Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) leader Ziyad al-Nakhalah said they would adhere to the ceasefire as long as Israel did. 

The IDF attacked about 1,500 terrorist targets in the Gaza Strip. As soon as the ceasefire went into effect Gazans began began to realise the extent of the cost of  destruction as a result of the firing of explosive laden rockets on Israel and the results of Israel’s response.

On May 21, 2021, the Hamas ministry of health in Gaza reported that all together 248 Gazans had been killed, 122 of those killed: 66 children, 39 women and 17 old people, and that 1,948 had been injured (ministry of health in Gaza Facebook page, May 21, 2021).

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)’s oPt | Situation Report No. 1 (21-27 May 2021), confirmed that the majority of those killed after seven days were members of Internationally recognized terrorist organizations. 
"According to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), up to 27 May, 256 Palestinians, including 66 children and 40 women were killed, of whom 128 were believed to be civilians." 

By simple math if we deduct the 66 children and 40 females -who were not members of either FTO that totals 106. If we deduct 106 from the total of 128 civilians killed 22 were male adults
And if we deduct the 91 confirmed killed by errant rockets that leaves 15 civilians whose deaths MAY have been caused by Israel actions.

The UN report based on the information from the Hamas controlled Ministry of Health in Gaza confirmed that 128  or 52% of the 256 Palestinians killed were members of Izz a-din Al-Qassem Brigades of Hamas or Islamic Jihad. 
It is worthwhile noting that 91 of the 256 Palestinians killed were actually recorded as NOT being killed by Israel but by misfired Palestinian rockets, according to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 

Because Islamic Jihad are the rivals of Hamas, the Ministry of Health in Gaza controlled by Hamas confirmed the reports of ONLY 11 deaths by misfired rockets.
Therefore, since Hamas fired many more of the 787 misfired explosive laden rockets, how many were murdered by their rockets -which are NOT reported!

During the first two days of Operation Guardians of the Walls. That report concluded the following:
16 (21%) were killed during the unsuccessful launch of rockets at Israel (including ten who were 18-years-old or less)
At least 41 (55%) were terrorists: 30 Hamas, 3 Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and 8 Fatah
17 (23%) were possibly civilian.
On May 21, 2021, the Ministry of Health in Gaza reported that 248 Gazans had been killed, including 66 children, 39 women and 17 old people, and that 1,948 had been injured (ministry of health in Gaza Facebook page, May 21, 2021).

The Palestinian Islamic Jihad military-terrorist wing issued a mourning notice for 19 of its operatives killed during the operation, the most important of whom was Husam Abu al-Rabid, commander of its northern brigade.

As in previous incidents Gazans were instructed to be more conscious of security and not transmit information about what had happened or the sites hit by Israeli attacks. They were also warned not to transmit information about operatives or their movements (Dunia al-Watan, May 22, 2021).

Here are screen shot captures from Palestinian sources of "Martyrs" of the terrorist movements in Gaza.

The Palestinians as per their usual "Blame Israel", reported serious infrastructure damage including;  water and sewage pipes, roads and communications networks. 

Rebuilding the Gaza Strip began immediately after the ceasefire was announced. Unlike previous rounds of hostilities, Egypt has taken upon itself not only to send money, but to establish a mechanism for transferring the funds and for coordinating donations and the supplies entering the Gaza Strip. 

According to the Lebanese newspaper al-Akhbar, Egypt promised to transfer $500 million to rebuild the Gaza Strip and now fills a key position in its implementation. According to report, Egypt’s efforts will not be limited to delivering materials for construction but it will also determine how the $500 million will be used and coordinate donations and supplies that enter the Gaza Strip. Generally speaking the reconstruction project will be carried out by companies belonging to the Egyptian army, limiting the influence of Turkish companies and strengthening cooperation with the Gulf States, which will also send aid in the coming days. According to “sources,” Egypt wants to restore its relations with Hamas and the other “organizations” to the point where they will protect the interests of Egypt, which aspires to ensure the continuation of the lull (al-Akhbar, May 22, 2021). Hasan Abd al-Aziz, a member of the Egyptian contractors’ association, said that for Egyptian private and public companies the rebuilding of the Gaza Strip would be a national mission and not a profit-making operation. He said the funds Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi promised would be translated into projects, raw materials and materials for construction, and not cash donations (Sputnik, May 22, 2021). 

Hamas and PIJ spokesmen celebrated their “victory” and Israel’s “defeat.” According to the Hamas narrative, they attacked not for the Gaza Strip but rather for Jerusalem, al-Aqsa mosque and the Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood in east Jerusalem. 
Even though the enlistment of Judea, Samaria and east Jerusalem was only partial, the Hamas leadership continues claiming that all the Palestinians participated in the Hamas-led hostilities. 

During the 11 days of the operation more than 4,360 explosive laden rockets and mortar shells were fired at Israel. Of which 3,573 penetrated Israeli airspace, about 680 fell inside the Gaza Strip and about 280 fell into the sea. The Iron Dome aerial defense system intercepted about 90% of the rocket fire. 
Two anti-tank missiles were fired at Israel and several launches were prevented. One killed an IDF soldier when it hit his jeep, the other superficially injured an IDF soldier. 
The joint operations room of the terrorist organizations in Gaza held a press conference where they claimed they had used “new technology” to fire rockets and that Israel had failed when it relied on “deception” to attack and destroy the “resistance” [i.e., terrorist] leaders and operatives. They also claimed they could have continued firing rockets in response to any Israeli “aggression” against the Palestinians (al-Aqsa, May 21, 2021). 

Know the Facts: The Ten Fundamental Principles Of "Dezinformatsiya"

The Ten Fundamental Principles Of "Dezinformatsiya" was part of the "Active Measures" program which began in the 1920s, as instituted by Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) who was a Georgian Bolshevik and Soviet politician, Marshal of the Soviet Union and state security administrator, chief of the Soviet security, and chief of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD). Beria was the longest-lived and most influential of Stalin's secret police chiefs, wielding his most substantial influence during and after World War II.

As early as 1923, Joseph Stalin ordered the creation of a "Special Disinformation Office", however, it should be noted that it was the general practice of Beria to work from the shadows and attribute his work to his superiors, as can be seen in his climb in party status from his other earlier works of deception.

It is therefore theorised by many historians, that Joseph Stalin himself coined the term “disinformation” in 1923 by giving it a French sounding name in order to deceive other nations into believing it was a practice invented in France, since the noun “disinformation” does not originate from Russian, it is a translation of the French word désinformation.

The objective of the "Active measures" program included offensive programs such as disinformation, propaganda, deception, sabotage, destabilization and espionage. These programs were based on foreign policy priorities of the Soviet Union. The purpose of "Active measures" was to influence the course of world events, abroad and domestically, in addition to collecting intelligence and producing revised assessments of it. "Active measures" ranged "from media manipulations the strategy of  "Dezinformatsiya" to special actions involving various degrees of violence".

"Active measures" included the establishment and the support of international front organizations (e.g., the World Peace Council); foreign communist, socialist and opposition parties and wars of "national liberation" in the Third World. It also included supporting underground, revolutionary, insurgency, criminal, and terrorist groups.

Retired KGB Major General Oleg Kalugin, former head of Foreign Counterintelligence for the KGB (1973–1979), described the "active measures" program as "the heart and soul of Soviet intelligence":

"Not intelligence collection, but subversion: active measures to weaken the West, to drive wedges in the Western community alliances of all sorts, particularly NATO, to sow discord among allies, to weaken the United States in the eyes of the people of Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, and thus to prepare ground in case the war really occurs."

According to the Mitrokhin Archives, active measures was taught in the Andropov Institute of the KGB situated at Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) headquarters in Yasenevo District of Moscow. Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin, was a major and senior archivist for the Soviet Union's foreign intelligence service, the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, copied documents certifying that the head of Soviet foreign intelligence. 

In light of the massive defeat of Arab armies, with their billions in Soviet Weaponry the Soviet Union in the 1956 Sinai and Six Day Wars, together with the withdrawal and lessing of sympathy for communism by Israelis, wanted to "repair the prestige" of "our Arab friends" at the hands of the Israelis.  Therefore, General Alexander Sakharovsky, who was head of the First Chief Directorate (foreign intelligence) of the KGB from 1955 until 1970 set out to destroy Israel through operation "SIG". 

Lt. General Ion Mihai Pacepa described the operation "SIG" ("Zionist Governments") which was devised in 1972, to turn the whole Islamic world against Israel and the United States in his meeting with KGB chairman Yuri Andropov who stated:

"a billion adversaries could inflict far greater damage on America than could a few millions. We needed to instill a Nazi-style hatred for the Jews throughout the Islamic world, and to turn this weapon of the emotions into a terrorist bloodbath against Israel and its main supporter, the United States."

He did so by helping them organize terrorist operations that would humiliate Israel through the use of the main KGB asset -- Yasser Arafat, who was the co-founder of Fatah. Yuri Andropov described Yasser Arafat to Pacepa as a; "devoted Marxist-Leninist since his days in the membership of the General Union of Palestinian Students (GUPS) from 1952 to 1956." .  

The Ten Fundamental Principles Of "Dezinformatsiya" 

1) The "Big Lie" - Always chose the greater lie at first over the lesser one, so that the masses (the listening or reading audience) can more readily accept it as fact and to make it harder for the real truth to be told.

2) Focus - Use one or two readily "acceptable"or"actual" events as the basis of "truth." 

3) Repetition - Always repeat the same line in your retelling of the event to to lend further credibility to hide the "lie".

4) Accusation - "Blame" be consistent in your libel of the "scapegoat". Do not leave room for doubt and use the three "D's"; Debase, Defame and Dehumanize." 

5) Issues - Critical or Crucial - events or concerns have no "gray areas" leaving no room for doubt regarding what immediate action should be taken. 

6) Terminology (Loaded language ) - Rhetoric used to influence an audience by using words and phrases with strong connotations associated with them in order to elicit an emotional response and/or exploit stereotypes. Provocative words like: "Genocide" "Apartheid" "Occupation".

7) Emotional triggers - the use of specific phrases or slogans that will induce an intense emotional reaction based on; memories, experiences, or events.

8) Denigrate - vilify, defame, denounce, malign, stigmatize and skewer your "scapegoat" as undesirables

9) Disregard Facts - Ignore intellectuals and reasonable arguments; target the least-able minded with powerful emotional pitches.

10) Unethical - be disingenuous, unscrupulous, amoral with no limitation -"The end justifies the means."  

Saturday, June 19, 2021

Juneteenth and the Facts

Juneteenth originally termed "Jubilee Day", is described as a holiday celebrated on the 19th June to commemorate the emancipation of enslaved people in the US when Union General Gordon Granger arrived at Ashton Villa Galveston, Texas and issued General Order No.3. on June 19th 1865 more than a month after the formal end of the American Civil War. 

Because of the Order the holiday was first celebrated in Texas in 1865, on the aftermath of the Civil War. Slaves were declared free in General Order No. 3 under the terms of the Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95. 

In reality, freedom for those held in slavery did not come all at once upon the signing and publication of the Emancipation Proclamation. Regretfully it would take three more years until the Confederacy (The South) was defeated and those held in slavery in areas unoccupied by victorious Union forces could be freed. Because many parts of the Confederacy were undefeated in 1863, the enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation was often delayed. 

Therefore three years after the original issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation when Union General Gordon Granger arrived at Ashton Villa Galveston, Texas,  after the formal end of the American Civil War he issued General Order No.3.

The following is the text of the official recorded version of the order:

Head Quarters District of Texas

Galveston Texas June 19th 1865.

General Orders No. 3.

The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor.

The freedmen are advised to remain quietly at their present homes and work for wages. They are informed that they will not be allowed to collect at military posts and that they will not be supported in idleness either there or elsewhere.

By order of Major General Granger

F.W. Emery

Major A.A. Genl.

To clarify, Proclamation 95 was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by the then United States President Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, during the Civil War. 

The Proclamation read:

"That on the first day of January in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom."

Very few of those marking Juneteenth have acknowledged that the Emancipation was made plausible due to the sacrifice of MAINLY young "WHITE" Americans who fought to "preserve the Union"! 

On the left is an actual photo of citizens, soldiers and dignitaries with President Lincoln (indicated by the red arrow) during his famous speech delivered during the heighth of the American Civil War at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of November 19, 1863, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg

It is worth noting, in light of the divisions in America today, the words of President Abraham Lincoln.
Lincoln described the US as a nation; "...conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal," and described the Civil War-"as a test that would determine whether such a nation, the Union sundered by the secession crisis, could endure."
President Lincoln extolled the sacrifices of those who died at Gettysburg in defense of those principles, and exhorted his listeners to resolve:

"...that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

Furthermore, to ensure the abolition of slavery in all of the U.S., it must be noted that Lincoln also insisted that Reconstruction plans for Southern states require abolition in new state laws (which occurred during the war in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana); 

Lincoln encouraged border states to adopt abolition (which occurred during the war in Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia) and pushed for passage of the Thirteenth Amendment. Congress passed the 13th Amendment by the necessary two-thirds vote on January 31, 1865, and it was ratified by the states on December 6, 1865. The amendment made chattel slavery and indentured servitude illegal